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read kindle á Kluge author Gary F. Marcus Ó Kindle Edition Ê [PDF / Epub] ★ Kluge By Gary F. Marcus – Johns-cycling-diary.co.uk Are we noble in reason Perfect in God's image Far from it says New York University psychologist Gary Marcus In this lucid and revealing book Marcus argues that the mind is Though it's only four words long He also offers surprisingly effective ways to outwit our inner kluge for example always consider alternative explanations make contingency plans and beware the vivid personal anecdote Throughout he shows how only evolution haphazard and undirected could have produced the minds we humans have while making a brilliant case for the power and usefulness of imperfectio Marcus takes a new slant our brains are the products of evolution and as such are not perfect In fact they're a kluge of different evolutionary developments each overlaying on top of each other He ends the book with some advice on how we can handle our imperfect minds sort of like a self help book on how we can deal with our klugey mindsOne annoying thing he gradually uses footnotes toward the end of the book For some reason it began to annoy me M

mobi ☆ Kluge author Gary F. Marcus ↠ Gary F. Marcus

Are we noble in reason Perfect in God's image Far from it says New York University psychologist Gary Marcus In this lucid and revealing book Marcus argues that the mind is not an elegantly designed organ but a kluge a clumsy cobbled together contraption He unveils a fundamentally new way of looking at the human mind think duct tape not supercomputer that sheds light on some of the most mysterious Fairly short a very interesting look at how our brain evolved which keeps us from approaching anything like true rationality on a regular basis He discusses many brain bugs but from a different perspective than Dean Buonomano did in Brain Bugs How the Brain's Flaws Shape Our Lives Marcus gives the evolutionary perspectiveWell narrated enthralling throughout Highly recommendedTable of Contents1 Remnants of History Under stress our reasoning falters as the latest layer is deprioritized by the underlying parts with so much evolutionary history Marcus does a great job of showing this with a variety of examples2 Memory The postal code memory systems used by computers is as powerful as it is simple Yeah we don't have that Instead we use what he calls contextual memory Items out of place often reuire a lot thought than they should we often make up stories to smooth out bumps3 Belief Because evolution built belief mainly out of off the shelf com­ponents that evolved for other purposes we often lose track of where our beliefs come from — if we ever knew — and even worse we are often completely unaware of how much we are influenced by irrele­vant information4 Choice Building on the previous chapters we don't make rational decisions it drives models of economics other predictors wild5 Language Like so much else it's pretty awful but good enough How the speech parts evolved out of existing structures was fascinating It makes me wonder how we manage to talk at all6 Plearsure Without it we wouldn't exist It's our reason to keep going but it's also our downfall all too often7 Things Fall Apart Engineers would probably build kluges often if it were not for one small fact that which is clumsy is rarely reliable The idea that we were designed perfectly is laughable no where is clear than in our minds They often fail spectacularly If it happens often enough in the same way we call it a disease Good chapter but I disagree with his take on psychopaths He lists them as a failure but I'll bet a lot of top executives would test out as one They're just better adjusted thus very successful8 True Wisdom The value of imperfections extends far beyond simple balance however Scientifically every kluge contains a clue to our past; wher­ever there is a cumbersome solution there is insight into how nature layered our brain together; it is no exaggeration to say that the history of evolution is a history of overlaid technologies and kluges help ex­pose the seams

Gary F. Marcus ↠ Kluge author Gary F. Marcus reader

Kluge author Gary F. MarcAspects of human natureTaking us on a tour of the fundamental areas of human experience memory belief decision making language and happiness Marcus reveals the myriad ways our minds fall short He examines why people often vote against their own interests why money can't buy happiness why leaders often stick to bad decisions and why a sentence like people people left left ties us into knots even As this book suggests the human mind is a mixture of inconsistencies It can systematically plan and prepare but it can also disregard those prepared plans in favor of immediate and short term gratification It can store and accurately retrieve memories but it can also hardly absorb readily available information and sometimes memories which can be retrieved at one particular time can also be distorted due to subjectively retained external stimuli In other words despite its reliability in certain aspects of information processing and retrieval it is actually a mixture of complex areas which oftentimes seem to work together in an intertwined manner—rational decisions can be influenced with the subjective preferences of emotionsThe human mind is not infinite in reason but as the book suggests it is of a ‘kluge’ A kluge is a clumsy or inelegant –yet surprisingly effective solution to a problem The human mind is a fantastic kluge and it is a uirky yet magnificent product of the entirely blind process of evolution It was even compared to a brand of paper feeder which was described as Accordingly temperamental subject to freuent breakdowns and devilishly difficult to repair—but oh so clever It was possible to do better It is a great metaphor for our everyday acceptance of the idiosyncrasies of the human mind imaginably impressive a lot better than any available alternative But it’s still flawed often in ways we scarcely recognize For the most part we simply accept our faults—as standard euipment Recognizing a kluge such as the human mind reuires thinking outside the box The best science often comes from understanding not just how things are but how else they could have beenNature is prone to making kluges because it doesn’t care whether its products are perfect or inelegant If something works it spreads If it doesn’t work it dies out All else is metaphor In other words the human mind as a kluge is a product of evolution if some of its functions don’t work effectively the better functions stay in place and improve while newer functions are developed to replace the ineffective onesSince the main ideas presented on this book are based on Evolutionary psychology much of its concepts had to be looked into uestion and since the mind is modeled like a clumsy instrument developing on a random process the uestion remains is it really so